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Table 3 Odds ratios for prior antibiotic a use in individuals with coeliac disease

From: Antibiotic exposure and the development of coeliac disease: a nationwide case–control study

  Coeliac disease
  Cases Controls Odds ratio 95% CI
  n = 2,933 (%) n = 14,571 (%)   
Type of antibiotics used b     
 Penicillin V 291 (9.9) 1308 (9.0) 1.12 0.98 – 1.27
 Extended spectrum penicillins 183 (6.2) 657 (4.5) 1.38 1.18 – 1.63
 Quinolones 51 (1.7) 170 (1.2) 1.46 1.08 – 1.97
 Macrolides 53 (1.8) 180 (1.2) 1.44 1.07 – 1.93
 Other systemic antibiotics 291 (9.9) 1041 (7.1) 1.42 1.24 – 1.62
Antibiotic use in the last year preceding diagnosis/study entry     
 Any antibiotic 722 (24.6) 2730 (18.7) 1.42 1.29 - 1.56
 Penicillin V 259 (8.8) 1162 (8.0) 1.12 0.97 - 1.28
 Extended spectrum penicillins 166 (5.7) 559 (3.8) 1.46 1.23 - 1.74
 Quinolones 45 (1.5) 153 (1.1) 1.43 1.04 - 1.98
 Macrolides 48 (1.6) 150 (1.0) 1.55 1.13 - 2.11
 Other systemic antibiotics 206 (8.9) 905 (6.2) 1.47 1.26 - 1.66
  1. Odds ratios estimated through conditional logistic regression modelling.
  2. a See Additional file 4 for anatomical therapeutic chemical codes used to classify systemic antibiotics (J01).
  3. b Antibiotics used between July 1st 2005 and January 29th 2008.