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Table 3 Risk factors for H. pylori seropositivity in asymptomatic subjects without a history of H. pylori eradication and gastric operation (Multivariable logistic regression)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea: Nationwide multicenter study over 13 years

   Total H. pylori Seropositivity
   N % Odds ratio 95% CI
Total   10,796 5,882 54.5    
Sex Male 6,085 3,472 57.1 Ref   
Female 4,711 2,410 51.2 0.79 0.71 0.87
Age (years) 16-19 17 2 11.8 0.55 0.11 2.68
20-29 421 111 26.4 Ref   
30-39 1,659 698 42.1 1.55 1.18 2.04
40-49 2,913 1,531 52.6 2.39 1.83 3.11
50-59 3,403 2,088 61.4 3.52 2.70 4.60
60-69 1,840 1,134 61.6 3.57 2.70 4.71
≥70 543 318 58.6 3.11 2.24 4.31
Geographic area Seoul 5,829 2,917 50.0 Ref   
Gyeonggi 1,683 898 53.4 1.07 0.95 1.21
Chungcheong 536 297 55.4 1.29 1.05 1.58
Kyungsang 914 595 65.1 1.29 1.06 1.57
Cholla 1,194 790 66.2 1.66 1.41 1.96
Kangwon 331 200 60.4 1.19 0.92 1.54
Jeju 299 176 58.9 1.36 1.05 1.77
Household Income* Low 1,247 785 63.0 1.21 1.00 1.45
Medium 6,197 3,416 55.1 1.07 0.96 1.19
High 2,005 1,042 52.0 Ref   
Education** Low 984 629 63.9 1.01 0.84 1.23
Medium 1,981 1,165 58.8 1.13 1.00 1.28
High 7,223 3,779 52.3 Ref   
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) <18.5 412 180 43.7 1.03 0.81 1.31
18.5 - <23.0 4,237 2,224 52.5 Ref   
23.0 - <25.0 2,759 1,565 56.7 0.98 0.88 1.10
≥25 3,249 1,830 56.3 0.95 0.84 1.06
Cholesterol (mg/dl) <240 9,228 4,882 52.9 Ref   
  ≥240 1,013 624 61.6 1.33 1.14 1.54
Triglyceride (mg/dl) <150 8,118 4,316 53.2 Ref   
  ≥150 2,102 1,179 56.1 0.98 0.87 1.10
Glucose (mg/dl) <100 7,206 3,786 52.5 Ref   
100 − <126 2,459 1,378 56.0 0.93 0.84 1.04
≥126 555 328 59.1 0.98 0.80 1.19
Family history of gastric cancer No 9,473 5,152 54.4 Ref   
Yes 1,270 700 55.1 0.96 0.84 1.09
  1. *, **, GI, CI, Ref, same as those of Table 2.
  2. Total subject number of multivariable logistic regression was 8,688.