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Table 3 Effects of coffee, smoking and alcohol on liver function tests by univariate analyses a

From: Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

  N Total cholesterol, g/dL Total protein, g/dL Albumin, g/dL Alkaline phosphatase, IU/L AST, IU/L ALT, IU/L Ln(GGT) Total bilirubin, mg/dL
Daily coffee drinking amount (cups/day) No 43 197.5 (38.9) 7.29 (0.36) 4.55 (0.25) 70.2 (23.0) 24.6 (7.8) 25.4 (13.1) 3.22 (0.68) 1.05 (0.40)
Mild (<1) 109 194.4 (30.9) 7.13 (0.35) 4.44 (0.26) 62.5 (15.2) 27.4 (20.7) 28.2 (25.9) 3.18 (0.78) 1.09 (0.43)
Moderate (1–2) 228 198.2 (36.9) 7.10 (0.39) 4.43 (0.22) 61.9 (19.6) 23.1 (8.9) 23.8 (14.8) 3.20 (0.68) 1.08 (0.42)
Heavy (≥3) 120 202.8 (33.9) 7.04 (0.35) 4.44 (0.23) 63.7 (17.3) 23.7 (8.3) 27.6 (15.9) 3.40 (0.75) 1.06 (0.37)
  p-value   0.344 0.002 0.025 0.057 0.029 0.111 0.051 0.888
Daily smoking amount (pack/day) No 262 196.2 (36.3) 7.16 (0.39) 4.43 (0.23) 61.4 (20.0) 22.3 (7.5) 21.3 (14.3) 2.93 (0.61) 1.00 (0.39)
Mild (<0.5) 76 200.1 (32.4) 7.07 (0.37) 4.48 (0.35) 62.8 (15.3) 27.3 (22.7) 30.2 (22.8) 3.51 (0.76) 1.18 (0.45)
Moderate (0.5-1) 96 200.1 (34.7) 7.03 (0.35) 4.46 (0.24) 66.6 (17.1) 25.5 (10.0) 31.8 (20.3) 3.63 (0.65) 1.15 (0.39)
Heavy (>1) 39 203.5 (30.5) 7.04 (0.34) 4.43 (0.20) 64.0 (15.6) 25.8 (9.4) 30.8 (17.9) 3.82 (0.61) 1.09 (0.32)
  p-value   0.524 0.01 0.344 0.124 0.003 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Daily drinking amount (g/day) No 180 200.5 (34.1) 7.14 (0.35) 4.41 (0.22) 64.9 (21.4) 24.3 (14.3) 23.0 (17.3) 2.93 (0.57) 0.97 (0.36)
Not heavy (< 60g/day for male, <20g/day for female) 290 196.7 (35.5) 7.09 (0.39) 4.47 (0.24) 61.9 (15.7) 23.7 (8.2) 26.5 (16.7) 3.36 (0.68) 1.13 (0.42)
Heavy ( ≥ 60 g/day for male, ≥20 g/day for female) 30 203.2 (37.7) 7.12 (0.38) 4.43 (0.24) 65.2 (25.3) 30.5 (25.7) 35.6 (28.1) 4.08 (0.94) 1.17 (0.45)
  p-value   0.394 0.369 0.03 0.198 0.016 0.001 <0.001 <0.001
  1. Abbreviation:AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ln(GGT), natural logarithmic scale of gamma-glutamyltransferase.
  2. a Data are presented as mean (SD).