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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics among coffee consumer groups categorized by daily coffee amounts

From: Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

  Daily coffee drinking amount  
No Mild Moderate Heavy  
0 cup/day <1 cup/day 1-2 cup/day ≥3 cup/day  
n=43 n=109 n=228 n=120 p-value
Age a, years 48.5 (12.7) 44.6 (12.3) 47.4 (9.7) 45.7 (10.3) 0.077
Male b 22 (51.2) 51 (46.8) 108 (47.4) 87 (72.5) 0.001
BMI a 23.2 (2.8) 23.4 (3.1) 23.1 (3.1) 24.2 (4.0) 0.035
 Obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2)b 11 (25.6) 26 (23.9) 63 (27.6) 44 (36.7) 0.152
Regular medication b 8 (18.6) 20 (18.3) 39 (17.1) 16 (13.3) 0.305
 Anti-hypertensive drug 7 (16.3) 19 (17.4) 29 (12.8) 14 (11.7) 0.206
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 2 (4.7) 1 (0.9) 5 (2.2) 1 (0.8) 0.313
 Anti-dyslipidemic drug 1 (2.3) 4 (3.7) 7 (3.1) 1 (0.8) 0.332
Ultrasonography
 Fatty liverb 2 (4.7) 13 (11.9) 17 (7.5) 14 (11.8) 0.480
Alcohol
Drinking history b
  None drinker 22 (51.2) 37 (33.9) 81 (35.5) 33 (27.5) 0.007
  Past drinker, quitted 3 (7.0) 7 (6.4) 5 (2.2) 4 (3.3)
  Current drinker 18 (41.9) 65 (59.6) 142 (62.3) 83 (69.2)
Daily amount of alcohol consumption b 15.9 (40.9) 11.1 (19.9) 14.0 (34.9) 16.0 (27.1) 0.649
  No 22 (51.2) 40 (36.7) 83 (36.4) 35 (29.2) 0.086
  Not heavy (< 60g/day for male, <20g/day for female) 17 (39.5) 63 (57.8) 131 (57.5) 79 (65.8)
  Heavy (≥ 60 g/day for male, ≥20 g/day for female) 4 (9.3) 6 (5.5) 14 (6.1) 6 (5.0)
Duration of drinking b n=43 n=106 n=227 n=116  
  ≥ 10 years 17 (39.5) 41 (38.7) 119 (52.4) 71 (61.2) 0.001
Lifetime amount (x10 3 g) b n=43 n=106 n=227 n=118  
  Never 22 (51.2) 38 (35.8) 80 (35.2) 33 (28.0) 0.033
  Mild(<100 x103 g for male , <35 x103 g for female) 12 (27.9) 44 (41.5) 82 (36.1) 47 (39.8)
  Moderate (100–200 x103 g for male, 35–70 x103 g for female) 1 (2.3) 7 (6.6) 19 (8.4) 13 (11.0)
  Heavy (≥200 x103 g for male, ≥70 x103 g for female) 8 (18.6) 17 (16.0) 46 (20.3) 25 (21.2)
Smoking
History b n=42 n=107 n=223 n=120  
  None smoker 28 (66.7) 72 (67.3) 131 (58.7) 31 (25.8) <0.001
  Past smoker, quitted 10 (23.8) 16 (15.0) 53 (23.8) 32 (26.7)
  Current smoker 4 (9.5) 19 (17.8) 39 (17.5) 57 (47.5)
Daily smoking amount (packs/day) b n=42 n=105 n=213 n=113  
  No 28 (66.7) 72 (68.6) 131 (61.5) 31 (27.4) <0.001
  <0.5 7 (16.7) 13 (12.4) 33 (15.5) 23 (20.4)
  0.5-1 4 (9.5) 16 (15.2) 34 (16.0) 42 (37.2)
  > 1 3 (7.1) 4 (3.8) 15 (7.0) 17 (15.0)
Lifetime amount (pack-year) b n=39 n=96 n=199 n=99  
  Never 28 (71.8) 72 (75.0) 131 (65.8) 31 (31.3) <0.001
  <10 5 (12.8) 12 (12.5) 27 (13.6) 15 (15.2)
  10-20 1 (2.6) 3 (3.1) 23 (11.6) 30 (30.3)
  ≥ 20 5 (12.8) 9 (9.4) 18 (9.0) 23 (23.2)
  1. Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.
  2. a Data are presented as mean (SD).
  3. b Data are presented as number (%).
  4. * P-value for the comparison among the daily coffee consumer groups (no, <1 cups/day, 1–2 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day).
  5. P for trend.