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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population

From: Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

  Total Male Female p-value*
N=500 n=268 n=232
Age a, years 46.5 (10.8) 46.7 (10.8) 46.2 (10.8) 0.432
BMI a, kg/m2 23.5 (3.4) 24.5 (3.5) 22.3 (2.9) <0.001
 Obesity (BMI≥25)b 144 (28.8) 107 (39.9) 37 (15.9) <0.001
 Overweight (BMI ≥23)b 269 (53.8) 190 (70.9) 79 (34.1) <0.001
Regular medication b 83 (16.6) 50 (18.7) 33 (14.2) 0.188
 Anti-hypertensive drug 69 (13.8) 42 (15.7) 27 (11.7) 0.242
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 9 (1.8) 7 (2.6) 2 (0.9) 0.186
 Anti-hypercholesterolemic drug 13 (2.6) 7 (2.6) 6 (2.6) 1.000
Ultrasonography b
 Fatty liver 46 (9.2) 37 (13.8) 9 (3.9) <0.001
Liver function tests a
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 198.4 (35.2) 201.6 (33.9) 194.9 (36.3) 0.030
 Total protein, g/dL 7.11 (0.37) 7.11 (0.36) 7.11 (0.39) 0.970
 Albumin, g/dL 4.44 (0.24) 4.50 (0.24) 3.38 (0.22) <0.001
 Total bilirubin, mg/dL 1.07 (0.41) 1.17 (0.38) 0.96 (0.41) <0.001
 ALP, IU/L 63.2 (18.6) 65.3 (15.9) 60.8 (21.1) 0.008
 AST, IU/L 24.3 (12.4) 25.8 (11.8) 22.6 (12.8) 0.005
 ALT, IU/L 25.8 (18.0) 30.7 (18.0) 20.1 (16.3) <0.001
 GGT, IU/L 35.3 (39.4) 46.0 (35.7) 33.9 (39.9) <0.001
 Ln(GGT) 3.25 (0.72) 3.60 (0.64) 2.83 (0.58) <0.001
Coffee
Drinking history b
  None drinker 38 (7.6) 19 (7.1) 19 (8.2) 0.525
  Past drinker, quitted 19 (3.8) 9 (3.4) 10 (4.3)
  Current drinker 443 (88.6) 240 (89.6) 203 (87.5)
Type of coffee b
  Instant 289 (57.8) 164 (61.2) 125 (53.9) 0.084
  Brewed 40 (8.0) 21 (7.8) 19 (8.2)
  Instant and brewed (mixed) 66 (13.2) 33 (12.3) 33 (14.2)
  Others 105 (21.0) 50 (18.7) 55 (23.7)
Daily amount of coffee consumption (cups/day) b
  0 43 (8.6) 22 (8.2) 21 (9.1) 0.001
  <1 109 (21.8) 51 (19.0) 58 (25.0)  
  1-2 229 (45.6) 108 (40.3) 120 (51.7)  
  ≥ 3 120 (24.0) 87 (32.5) 33 (14.2)  
Smoking
History b
  None smoker 262 (53.3) 50 (18.7) 212 (94.2) <0.001
  Past smoker, quitted 111 (22.6) 109 (40.8) 2 (0.9)  
  Current smoker 119 (24.2) 108 (40.4) 11 (4.9)  
Daily smoking amount (packs/day) b n=473 n=249 n=224  
  No 262 (55.4) 50 (20.1) 212 (94.6) <0.001
  <0.5 76 (16.1) 66 (26.5) 10 (4.5)
  0.5-1 96 (20.3) 94 (37.8) 2 (0.9)
  > 1 39 (8.2) 39 (15.7) 0 (0.0)
Alcohol
Drinking history b
  None drinker 173 (34.6) 32 (11.9) 141 (60.8) <0.001
  Past drinker, quitted 19 (3.8) 13 (4.9) 6 (2.6)  
  Current drinker 308 (61.6) 223 (83.2) 85 (36.6)  
Daily amount of alcohol consumption b
  No 180 (36.0) 34 (12.7) 146 (62.9) <0.001
  Not heavy (< 60g/day for male, <20g/day for female) 290 (58.0) 213 (79.5) 77 (33.2)
  Heavy (≥ 60 g/day for male, ≥20 g/day for female) 30 (6.0) 21 (7.8) 9 (3.9)
Duration of drinking b
  ≥ 10 years 236 (49.4) 203 (76.0) 43 (18.6) <0.001
  1. Abbreviation:BMI, body mass index; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ln(GGT), natural logarithmic scale of gamma-glutamyltransferase.
  2. a Data are presented as mean (SD).
  3. b Data are presented as number (%).
  4. * P-value for the comparison between men and women.
  5. P for trend.