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Table 3 Changes in reported consumption of pharmaceutical agents among coeliac disease patients (pills per month on average) between the year prior to and following the diagnosis of coeliac disease

From: Use of health care services and pharmaceutical agents in coeliac disease: a prospective nationwide study

  All Female Male
n = 700 n = 534 n = 166
All on-demand medicines*   
  Year prior to diagnosis 12.0 12.2 11.4
  Year after diagnosis on a GFD 9.3 9.1 10.0
  Mean change (95% CI) −2.7 (−4.3 to −1.2) −3.1 (−4.9 to −1.4) −1.4 (−4.8 to 2.0)
  P value <0.001 <0.001 0.011
Painkillers    
  Year prior to diagnosis 6.8 7.2 5.6
  Year after diagnosis on a  GFD 5.5 5.2 6.4
  Mean change (95% CI) −1.3 (−2.6 to −0.1) −2.0 (−3.4 to −0.5) 0.8 (−2.1 to 3.7)
  P value <0.001 <0.001 0.432
Medicines for dyspepsia    
  Year prior to diagnosis 3.7 3.5 4.4
  Year after diagnosis on a GFD 2.5 2.4 2.6
  Mean change (95% CI) −1.27 (−2.10 to −0.44) −1.1 (−2.0 to −1.2) −1.8 (−3.7 to 0.1)
  P value <0.001 <0.001 0.015
Antibiotic treatment    
  Year prior to diagnosis 0.6 0.7 0.4
  Year after diagnosis on a GFD 0.5 0.5 0.3
  Mean change (95% CI) −0.1 (−0.2 to −0.1) −0.2 (−0.3 to −0.1) −0.1 (−0.3 to 0.1)
  P value 0.001 0.001 0.302
Vitamins, micronutrients, herbal products   
  Year prior to diagnosis 18.4 20.7 10.8
  Year after diagnosis on a  GFD 22.6 24.6 16.2
  Mean change (95% CI) 4.2 (1.8 to 6.7) 3.9 (0.9 to 6.8) 5.5 (1.8 to 9.1)
  P value <0.001 0.003 0.002
  1. CI confidence interval.
  2. GFD gluten-free diet.
  3. * Painkillers, medicines for dyspepsia, sleeping pills.
  4. Not reported as pills per month but as number of courses per year.