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Table 2 Multinomial model odds ratios for the included demographic/medical history and symptom variables for each of the four outcomes compared to patients with no adenomas, advanced adenomas or cancers

From: The value of age and medical history for predicting colorectal cancer and adenomas in people referred for colonoscopy

     Cancer
(n = 159)
Advanced Adenoma
(n = 468)
Adenoma
Size 6 - 9 mm
(n = 286)
Adenoma
Size ≤ 5 mm
(n = 507)
 
   n % OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) p-value
DEMOGRAPHIC/MEDICAL HISTORY        
Age < 50 years (Reference) 2211 27.0      
  50 - 59 2169 26.4 6.84 (3.33, 14.06) ** 2.54 (1.82, 3.55) ** 1.72 (1.15, 2.55)** 2.36 (1.70, 3.26)** <.001
  60 - 69 2032 24.8 13.84 (6.77, 28.29) ** 3.47 (2.48, 4.87) ** 1.79 (1.19, 2.70) ** 2.74 (1.97, 3.82)**  
  70 or more 1792 21.8 23.54 (11.43, 48.45) ** 5.27 (3.72, 7.47) ** 2.99 (1.98, 4.52) ** 3.60 (2.55, 5.07) **  
Gender Female (Reference) 4344 52.9      
  Male 3860 47.1 1.44 (1.02, 2.04)* 1.29 (1.05, 1.57)* 1.53 (1.19, 1.96)** 1.37 (1.13, 1.65)** <.001
Colonoscopy None in last 10 years (Reference) 3791 46.2      
  Previous (in last 10 years) 4413 53.8 0.22 (0.15, 0.34) ** 0.42 (0.33, 0.53) ** 0.71 (0.53, 0.95)* 0.87 (0.70, 1.09) <.001
History of colorectal polyps No (reference) 6436 78.4      
  Yes 1768 21.6 0.87 (0.47, 1.59) 1.99 (1.53, 2.58) ** 1.89 (1.39, 2.56) ** 1.79 (1.43, 2.25) ** <.001
Smoking Status Non-smoker (Reference) 4710 57.4      
  4 or less pack years 1246 15.2 0.89 (0.52, 1.55) 0.95 (0.70, 1.30) 0.75 (0.51, 1.12) 0.89 (0.67, 1.19) 0.010
  4 to 15.5 pack years 1188 14.5 1.49 (0.95, 2.33) 1.43 (1.09, 1.86) ** 1.04 (0.74, 1.48) 0.95 (0.73, 1.25)  
  more than 15.5 pack years 1060 12.9 1.52 (0.98, 2.37) 1.53 (1.17, 2.00) ** 1.40 (1.01, 1.93)* 1.11 (0.85, 1.45)  
History of irritable bowel syndrome No (Reference) 7240 88.2      
  Yes 964 11.8 0.45 (0.21, 0.99)* 0.45 (0.29, 0.70) ** 0.98 (0.66, 1.45) 0.95 (0.71, 1.29) 0.001
History of NSAID use No (Reference) 7445 90.7      
  Yes 759 9.3 0.33 (0.15, 0.72) ** 0.42 (0.28, 0.65) ** 0.80 (0.52, 1.22) 0.69 (0.49, 0.97)* <.001
History of aspirin use No (Reference) 6874 83.8      
  Yes 1330 16.2 0.54 (0.34, 0.85) ** 0.79 (0.61, 1.02) 1.09 (0.81, 1.48) 0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 0.023
Education Level Secondary or lower (Reference) 3721 45.4      
  Tertiary 4483 54.6 0.83 (0.59, 1.17) 0.81 (0.67, 0.99)* 1.03 (0.81, 1.33) 0.80 (0.66, 0.97)* 0.044
SYMPTOMS         
Bleeding No Symptom (Reference) 5181 63.2      
  no other info 64 0.8 2.35 (0.67, 8.18) 0.51 (0.12, 2.16) 1.52 (0.53, 4.31) 0.22 (0.03, 1.60) <.001
  present greater 12 months 1044 12.7 1.25 (0.68, 2.33) 1.39 (1.03, 1.88)* 0.67 (0.42, 1.05) 1.04 (0.77, 1.40)  
  Occurring monthly or occasionally;
and present less 12 months
1226 14.9 2.00 (1.26, 3.17) ** 1.21 (0.92, 1.60) 1.08 (0.77, 1.52) 1.08 (0.83, 1.42)  
  weekly; present less 12 months 689 8.4 5.09 (3.26, 7.94) ** 1.43 (1.00, 2.03) 0.80 (0.47, 1.36) 0.58 (0.36, 0.93)*  
Mucus No Symptom (Reference) 6886 83.9      
  no other info 131 1.6 0.43 (0.06, 3.24) 1.01 (0.43, 2.37) 0.27 (0.04, 1.96) 0.55 (0.20, 1.51) 0.001
  present greater 12 months 466 5.7 1.10 (0.43, 2.79) 0.69 (0.39, 1.20) 0.69 (0.35, 1.37) 0.60 (0.36, 1.02)  
  Occurring monthly or occasionally;
and present less 12 months
393 4.8 1.37 (0.66, 2.84) 0.82 (0.48, 1.42) 1.71 (1.04, 2.82)* 0.99 (0.62, 1.60)  
  Weekly; present less 12 months 328 4.0 3.00 (1.71, 5.25) ** 0.99 (0.57, 1.72) 0.46 (0.17, 1.26) 0.35 (0.14, 0.85)*  
Anaemia No (Reference) 7383 90.0      
  Yes 821 10.0 2.95 (1.96, 4.45) ** 0.84 (0.59, 1.21) 0.55 (0.32, 0.94)* 0.76 (0.54, 1.09) <.001
Fatigue No (Reference) 4938 60.2      
  Yes 3266 39.8 1.36 (0.97, 1.91) 0.67 (0.54, 0.83) ** 0.80 (0.62, 1.04) 0.90 (0.74, 1.10) <.001
  1. Total number of patients 8204; number with no abnormality 6784.
  2. Key ORs in bold are statistically significant
  3. * p 0.01 - 0.05
  4. ** p < 0.01