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Table 3 Odds of UTIs and odds of pyelonephritis occurring at least one or at least five years before diagnosis stratified by age

From: An increased risk of urinary tract infection precedes development of primary biliary cirrhosis

   Matched controls. Chronic liver disease controls
Age groups Case (%) Control (%) OR (CI) Adjusted OR (CI) Control (%) OR (CI) Adjusted OR (CI)
UTIs at least one year before diagnosis
< 55 68 (31.2) 433 (19.9) 1.98 (1.43-2.75) 1.97 (1.42-2.74) 865 (14.1) 2.76 (2.06-3.71) 1.24 (0.91-1.68)
> = 55 161 (27.7) 1304 (22.4) 1.36 (1.11-1.66) 1.34 (1.10-1.64) 1179 (19.6) 1.56 (1.29-1.90) 0.90 (0.74-1.10)
UTIs at least five years before diagnosis
< 55 53 (24.3) 280 (12.9) 2.39 (1.67-3.42) 2.39 (1.67-3.42) 526 (8.3) 3.43 (2.48-4.73) 1.61 (1.15-2.25)
> = 55 97 (16.7) 815 (14.02) 1.25 (0.98-1.60) 1.24 (0.97-1.58) 755 (12.6) 1.39 (1.10-1.75) 0.83 (0.65-1.05)
Pyelonephritis at least one year before diagnosis
< 55 7 (3.21) 34 (1.56) 2.13 (0.92-4.91) 2.16 (0.93-5.02) 60 (0.98) 3.36 (1.52-7.44) 1.87 (0.83-4.19)
> = 55 7 (1.20) 45 (0.77) 1.56 (0.70-3.46) 1.59 (0.71-3.55) 56 (0.93) 1.29 (0.59-2.85) 0.82 (0.37-1.83)
Pyelonephritis at least five years before diagnosis
< 55 6 (2.75) 25 (1.15) 2.54 (1.00-6.46) 2.60 (1.02-6.63) 39 (0.64) 4.42 (1.85-10.56) 2.45 (1.02-5.95)
> = 55 4 (0.69) 41 (0.71) 0.98 (0.35-2.72) 0.99 (0.35-2.76) 46 (0.77) 0.90 (0.32-2.50) 0.58 (0.20-1.62)
  1. The adjusted models are adjusted for smoking in the comparison to matched controls, and with gender and smoking in the comparison to chronic liver disease controls.