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Table 4 Risk factors associated with PVT

From: High Incidence of Hepatitis B Infection-Associated Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Southeast Asian Patients with Portal Vein Thrombosis

Malignancy 126 (65)
HCC (102), CCA (16), pancreatic CA (3), gallbladder CA (1), hepatoblastoma (1), ovarian CA (1), secondary malignant neoplasm of liver (2)
Cirrhosis* 98 (50.5)
HBV (38), HCV (12), Alcohol (15), HBV+HCV (2), HBV+alcohol (8), HCV+alcohol (3), cryptogenic (19), autoimmune (1) [Child-Pugh Class: A (29), B (30), C (30), unknown (9)]
Abdominal intervention 15 (7.7)
Umbilical catheterization (5), splenectomy (2), cholecystectomy (5), hepatectomy (1), percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) (1), Whipple operation with revised hepatojejunostomy and T-tube (1)
Abdominal inflammation/infection 18 (9.3)
Pancreatitis (3), liver abscess (4), cholangitis (4), splenic abscess (1), cholecystitis (1), omphalitis (1), abdominal tuberculosis (1), sepsis (3)
Bone marrow (BM) disorders 9 (4.6)
Polycythemia vera (3), primary myelofibrosis (2), essential thrombocytosis (1), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (2), acute myeloid leukemia (1)
Hereditary coagulation defects 1 (0.5)
Protein S deficiency (1)  
Anti-phospholipid syndrome 1 (0.5)
Oral contraceptive pills 4 (2)
Others ** 2 (1)
Idiopathic causes 18 (9.3)
  1. *Include cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (79) and cholangiocarcionoma (CCA) (1)
  2. ** Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (1), splenic lymphangiomatosis (1)