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Table 3 Effect of moderate (3-5g) and low (1-3g) amounts of gluten on serum transglutaminase 2 (TG2) antibodies and small bowel mucosal TG2-targeted autoantibody deposits in treated celiac disease patients.

From: Small- bowel mucosal changes and antibody responses after low- and moderate-dose gluten challenge in celiac disease

No Mean daily gluten intake Duration of gluten Serum TG2 antibodies* Mucosal TG2 antibody deposits†
    I II I II
Moderate amounts of gluten daily   
1 5.0 29 10 319 0 +++
2 4.9 84 9 13 0 0
3 4.9 38 5 10 0 +
4 4.7 45 44 218 + +++
5 4.1 61 6 5 0 0
6 4.0 91 21 263 + +++
7 3.6 91 6 47 0 ++
8 3.6 84 8 10 ++ +
9 3.4 88 13 16 0 0
10 3.3 86 18 229 + +++
Low amounts of gluten daily   
11 2.8 89 6 7 0 ++
12 2.7 84 7 111 0 ++
13 2.6 81 7 5 0 0
14 2.4 85 12 88 0 ++
15 2.2 103 9 9 0 0
16 2.1 93 16 94 ++ ++
17 2.1 85 9 8 0 0
18 2.1 84 24 21 + +
19 2.1 83 8 8 0 0
20 1.4 77 10 13 0 +
21 1.3 78 14 101 0 ++
Altogether positive outcome‡, n (%) 9 (43%) 11 (52%)
  1. Clinically significant changes between baseline (I) and 12 weeks' follow-up examination (II) are marked in bold letters. Complete challenge lasted 12 weeks (84 ± 14 days).
  2. * Values of ≥20 IU considered positive
  3. † Graded as negative (0), weak (+), moderate (++) and strong positive (+++)
  4. ‡ Positive outcome reported when serum antibody levels or intensity of mucosal autoantibody deposits increased.