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Table 2 Metabolic profile of healthy participants and HIV-infected patients segregated according to HCV co-infection and HIV-1 viral load

From: Infection with HIV and HCV enhances the release of fatty acid synthase into circulation: evidence for a novel indicator of viral infection

   HIV-infected patients
  Control group Non-HCV co-infected group HCV co-infected group
  ( n = 102) VL < 40 copies/mL VL > 40 copies/mL VL < 40 copies/mL VL > 40 copies/mL
   (n = 47) (n = 29) (n = 67) (n = 48)
FASN, μg/L 3.36 (0.92) 5.83 (1.34) a 5.08 (1.74) * 12.69 (2.01) c 14.41 (2.91) c
NEFA, mmol/L 0.65 (0.04) 0.62 (0.06) 0.64 (0.06) 0.63 (0.04) 0.61 (0.05)
Glucose, mmol/L 4.96 (0.16) 5.61 (0.20) c 5.2 (0.14) b 5.42 (0.12) c 5.16 (0.10) b
Insulin, pmol/L 64.6 (6.59) 69.22 (9.68) 47.95 (6.11) a,* 84.40 (10.79) a 76.31 (11.82)
HOMA-IR 1.15 (0.20) 1.33 (0.18) 0.92 (0.14) a,* 1.64 (0.22) a 1.48 (0.25)
Cholesterol, mmol/L 5.27 (0.12) 5.52 (0.19) 5.14 (0.23) 4.74 (0.15) c 4.41 (0.16) c
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 1.36 (0.03) 1.24 (0.09) a 1.15 (0.08) b 1.21 (0.05) b 1.07 (0.05) c, *
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 3.19 (0.79) 3.28 (0.17) 2.96 (0.17) 2.71 (0.13) c 2.38 (0.13) c
Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.27 (0.9) 3.00 (0.47) c 3.11 (1.01) 2.04 (0.18) c 3.24 (1.09) c
Apolipoprotein AI, g/L 1.69 (0.05) 1.44 (0.05) c 1.26 (0.04) c, ** 1.40 (0.03) c 1.33 (0.04) c
Alanine aminotransferase, μKat/L 0.46 (0.02) 0.45 (0.03) 0.51 (0.04) 0.98 (0.11) c 0.97 (0.11) c
Aspartate aminotransferase, μKat/L 0.41 (0.02) 0.41 (0.03) 0.47 (0.08) 0.88 (0.09) c 0.88 (0.99) c
  1. Values are the mean and the standard error of the mean (S.E.M.).
  2. VL indicates HIV-1 viral load; HOMA-IR is homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance; NEFA is non-esterificated fatty acids.
  3. a P < 0.05, b P < 0.01 and c P < 0.001 with respect to control group; * P < 0.05 and ** P = 0.006 with respect to patients with VL < 40 copies/mL in the corresponding group