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Table 5 Comparison of the three treated groups with GERD

From: The potential therapeutic effect of melatonin in gastro-esophageal reflux disease

  Melatonin Omeprazole Melatonin and Omeprazole P value
     P1 P2 P3
   A)Symptoms:       
Heart burn:       
control 0 0 0    
pretreatment:       
   yes 7 7 8    
   duration (months) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4    
4 weeks       
8 weeks 3(57.1%) 2(71.4%) 1(87.5%)    
  0(100%) 0(100%) 0(100%)    
Epigastric pain:       
   -control 0 0 0    
pretreatment:       
   yes 6 6 6    
   duration (months) 1.4 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4    
4 weeks 3(50%) 2(66.7%) 1(83.3%)    
8 weeks 1(83%) 0(100%) 0(100%)    
   B) LES Study:     P1 P2 P3
   1-LES pressure(mmHg)       
control 22.8 ± 1.3 22.8 ± 1.3 22.8 ± 1.3 0.9 0.9 0.9
pretreatment: 10 ± 1.58 10.5 ± 2.86 10.3 ± 1.68 0.65 0.7 0.86
4 weeks 14.5 ± 1.58 10.4 ± 4.05 14.5 ± 1.26 0.006 0.468 0.002
8 weeks 20.2 ± 1.56 10.5 ± 2.85 20.5 ± 1.22 0.000 0.68 0.000
   2-Residual pressure (mmHg)     P1 P2 P3
   - control 0.4 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.01 0.4 ± 0.01 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment: 0.012 ± 0.52 0.1 ± 0.064 0.012 ± 0.44 0.578 1.00 0.556
4 weeks 0.2 ± 0.016 0.2 ± 0.15 0.21 ± 0.016 1.00 0.198 0.198
8 weeks 0.32 ± 0.013 0.1 ± 0.07 0.33 ± 0.016 0.000 0.08 0.000
   3-Relaxation duration (seconds)     P1 P2 P3
control 5.0 ± 0.1 5.0 ± 0.1 5.0 ± 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment:: 6.8 ± 0.12 6.5 ± 2.74 6.8 ± 0.16 0.747 1.000 0.747
4 weeks 5.9 ± 0.16 6.3 ± 2.7 5.8 ± 0.13 0.662 0.153 0.585
8 weeks 5.3 ± 0.12 6.3 ± 2.65 5.2 ± 0.12 0.747 0.102 0.059
   4-Relaxation %     P1 P2 P3
control 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment: 86 ± 0.87 87.2 ± 0.17 85 ± 1.58 0.12 0.116 0.14
4 weeks 90 ± 0.86 87.3 ± 0.25 90 ± 1.23 0.1 1.000 0.1
8 weeks 100 ± 0.00 87.1 ± 0.1 100 ± 0.00 0.01 1.00 0.01
C) PH (at 5 cm above the LES):     P1 P2 P3
control: 7.8 ± 0.4 7.8 ± 0.4 7.8 ± 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment: 2.3 ± 0.36 2.1 ± 0.38 1.98 ± 0.37 0.1 0.1 0.1
4 weeks 5.2 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.48 6.1 ± 0.55 0.008 0.002 0.09
8 weeks 6.7 ± 0.65 7.2 ± 0.32 7.5 ± 0.31 0.01 0.008 0.1
D) BAO(mmol/h)     P1 P2 P3
   - control: 2.6 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment: 24.7 ± 0.5 25.1 ± 0.6 24.9 ± 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1
4 weeks 20.1 ± 0.4 17.2 ± 0.7 15.8 ± 0.9 0.008 0.002 0.09
   - 8 weeks 16.6 ± 0.6 11.5 ± 0.6 10.2 ± 0.9 0.01 0.008 0.1
E) Serum Gastrin(pg/ml)     P1 P2 P3
control: 41.8 ± 7.1 41.8 ± 7.1 41.8 ± 7.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment: 22.1 ± 4.2 21.5 ± 4.6 21.9 ± 4.7 0.1 0.1 0.1
4 weeks 27.2 ± 2.3 32.1 ± 2.1 33.6 ± 2.7 0.008 0.002 0.09
   - 8 weeks 32.3 ± 2.1 35.9 ± 1.8 36.8 ± 2.1 0.01 0.008 0.1
D) Melatonin level at day time (pg/ml):     P1 P2 P3
control 36.1 ± 2.3 36.1 ± 2.3 36.1 ± 2.3 1.0 1.0 1.0
pretreatment: 18.2 ± 5.54 18.5 ± 3.75 18.3 ± 3.8 0.1 0.665 0.472
4 weeks 28.26 ± 2.26 19.2 ± 3.47 28.83 ± 1.82 0.000 0.55 0.000
8 weeks 34.5 ± .35 17.9 ± 3.72 34.5 ± 2.35 0.000 1.00 0.000
  1. P1: group III versus group II
  2. P2: group IV versus group II
  3. P3: group IV versus group III