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Table 1 Means ± SD and n (%) of clinical and biological variables associated with incident diabetes, according to values of the Fatty Liver Index of < 20, 20-69, ≥ 70 at baseline; The D.E.S.I.R. Study.

From: Nine-year incident diabetes is predicted by fatty liver indices: the French D.E.S.I.R. study

  Men   Women  
  Fatty Liver Index P-values a Fatty Liver Index P-values a
  < 20 20-69 ≥ 70   < 20 20-69 ≥ 70  
  n = 594 (32%) n = 990 (53%) n = 277 (15%)   n = 1430 (73%) n = 445 (23%) n = 75 (4%)  
Incident diabetes years 0 to 9 14 (2) 69 (7) 57 (21) 0.0001 13 (1) 30 (7) 20 (27) 0.0001
years 0 to 3 5 (1) 21 (2) 26 (10) 0.0001 7 (1) 14 (3) 9 (13) 0.0001
years 3 to 6b 3 (1) 18 (2) 16 (7) 0.0001 1 (0.1) 4 (1) 6 (10) 0.0001
years6 to 9c 6 (1) 25 (3) 11 (5) 0.005 5 (0.3) 10 (2) 5 (8) 0.0001
Diabetes in family 102 (17) 178 (18) 59 (21) 0.07 274 (19) 104 (23) 17 (23) 0.1
Age (years) 43 ± 10 48 ± 10 50 ± 9 0.0001 46 ± 10 52 ± 9 51 ± 9 0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 81 ± 5 91 ± 6 102 ± 7 0.0001 72 ± 6 87 ± 7 101 ± 8 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 22.5 ± 1.8 25.7 ± 2.0 29.6 ± 2.9 0.0001 22.2 ± 2.3 27.7 ± 2.9 33.4 ± 4.2 0.0001
Glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 0.5 5.5 ± 0.5 5.7 ± 0.6 0.0001 5.0 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.5 0.0001
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 5.5 ± 0.4 5.6 ± 0.4 0.0001 5.3 ± 0.4 5.5 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.5 0.0001
Insulin (pmol/l) ‡ 33 ± 14 49 ± 24 74 ± 44 0.0001 37 ± 16 58 ± 29 90 ± 44 0.0001
Menopause      453 (32) 251 (57) 42 (56) 0.7
Large baby > 4 kg      190 (14) 91 (21) 19 (27) 0.0001
Treatment for HTA 15 (3) 102 (10) 51 (18) 0.0001 105 (7) 95 (21) 25 (33) 0.0001
Systolic BP (mmHg) 128 ± 12 135 ± 14 142 ± 16 0.0001 125 ± 14 135 ± 16 141 ± 18 0.0001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 78 ± 8 82 ± 9 87 ± 10 0.0001 76 ± 8 82 ± 9 83 ± 8 0.0001
Heart rate (min) 64 ± 10 66 ± 9 70 ± 11 0.0001 68 ± 9 69 ± 10 72 ± 12 0.0001
Treatment for lipids 22 (4) 90 (9) 33 (12) 0.005 75 (5) 53 (12) 10 (13) 0.2
Triglycerides (mmol/l)d 0.79 ± 0.30 1.36 ± 0.74 2.20 ± 1.25 0.0001 0.79 ± 0.35 1.30 ± 0.57 1.88 ± 0.81 0.0001
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) d 1.64 ± 0.41 1.44 ± 0.35 1.33 ± 0.31 0.0001 1.86 ± 0.42 1.63 ± 0.39 1.47 ± 0.30 0.0001
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.43 ± 0.85 5.92 ± 0.93 6.39 ± 1.07 0.0001 5.47 ± 0.91 6.01 ± 0.99 6.26 ± 1.02 0.0001
GGT (IU/l) d 22.2 ± 11.4 40.4 ± 28.1 85.9 ± 76.4 0.0001 17.6 ± 10.9 30.8 ± 23.8 58.8 ± 68.3 0.0001
ALT (IU/l) d 22.8 ± 8.5 32.2 ± 19.3 45.4 ± 25.4 0.0001 17.9 ± 8.3 26.4 ± 22.9 31.4 ± 20.7 0.0001
AST (IU/l) d 20.4 ± 6.3 23.2 ± 11.0 27.8 ± 15.5 0.0001 17.3 ± 6.8 20.4 ± 13.6 21.4 ± 11.2 0.0001
Creatinine (μmol/l) 87.2 ± 10.4 89.9 ± 11.1 91.1 ± 13.2 0.0001 73.7 ± 9.6 75.2 ± 10.8 78.8 ± 12.3 0.0001
White Blood Cell
count (104/mm3) d
62 ± 17 65 ± 17 66 ± 17 0.0001 61 ± 16 65 ± 15 74 ± 36 0.0001
Intense physical activity 180 (30) 193 (19) 40 (14) 0.0001 318 (22) 64 (14) 12 (16) 0.01
Smoker 155 (26) 240 (24) 75 (27) 0.03 200 (14) 47 (11) 12 (16) 0.03
Alcohol (g/day) 18 ± 20 25 ± 22 36 ± 29 0.0001 7 ± 11 8 ± 13 9 ± 14 0.8
≥ 30/20g/day men/women 143 (24) 315 (32) 133 (48) 0.0001 363 (25) 125 (28) 23 (31) 0.7
IDF metabolic syndrome 0 (0) 162 (17) 193 (71) 0.0001 23(2) 152 (34) 52 (69) 0.0001
NAFLD Fatty Liver Score (5) -2.34 ± 0.44 -1.57 ± 0.89 -0.14 ± 1.31 0.0001 -2.44 ± 0.57 -1.34 ± 1.06 -0.13 ± 1.21 0.0001
  1. a p-values from ANOVA or logistic regression, adjusted on age
  2. b 4 individuals with unknown diabetic status at 3 years of follow-up
  3. c 7 individuals with unknown diabetic status known at 6 years of follow-up
  4. d log-transformation for analysis because of a non-symmetric distribution