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Table 1 Seasonal variation in the onset of PUD and related complications in several countries and continents.

From: Seasonal pattern of peptic ulcer hospitalizations: analysis of the hospital discharge data of the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy

Disease Author/Setting Sample size Source of data Time period Peak
Peptic ulcer      
  Scholtyssek et al, 1986 (Germany) 1091 Single center 1973 - 1983 Autumn (Nov)
  Sonnenberg et al 1992 (U.S.A.) Unknown Nationwide database Not available Jan to Mar, Oct
  Savarino et al, 1996 (Italy) 319 Single center 1987 - 1992 Autumn (Nov-Dec) Winter (Jan-Mar)
Hemorrhage      
  Marbella et al, 1988 (U.S.A.) 285 Single center 1974 - 1976 Jan-Feb, Jul-Aug, Nov-Dec
  Tishchenko et al, 1990 (Russia) 390 Single center Not available Jan, Oct, Sept
  Shih et al, 1993 (Taiwan) 2,889 Single center 1987 - 1992 Jan - Feb
  Thomopoulos et al, 1997 (Greece) 1,992 Single center 1991 - 1996 Apr and Oct
  Tsai et al, 1998 (Taiwan) 10,331 Single center 1989 - 1996 Nov - Mar
  Rodrìguez et al, 1999 (Mexico) 275 Single center 1991 - 1997 May, June, Nov
  Nomura et al, 2001 (Japan) 441 Single center 1996 - 1999 Autumn and Winter
  Lopez-Cepero et al, 2005 (Spain) 499 Single center 1998 - 2001 No seasonal variation
Perforation      
  Adler et al, 1984 (Australia) 1,187 Hospitals of West. Australia 1971 - 1981 Nov - Jan
  Christensen et al, 1988 (Denmark) 296 7 depts of gastrointest. surg. 1975 - 1984 August-September
  Bendahan et al, 1992 (Israel) 540 Single center 1977 - 1986 Nov - Feb
  Csendes et al, 1995 (Chile) Unknown 9 hospitals 1980,1985,1990 Autumn
  Yen et al, 1996 (Taiwan) 1,787 Single center 1991 - 1992 Feb-Mar
  Svanes et al, 1998 (Norway) 1,480 Area hospitals 1935 - 1990 May-Jul, Nov-Dec
  Wysocki et al, 1999 (Poland) Unknown Single center 1991 - 1995 May-Jul, Sep-Oct
  Janik & hwirot, 2000 (Poland) 441 Single center 1977 - 1996 No seasonal variation
  Budzynski et al, 2000 (Poland) 220 Single center 1993 - 1997 No seasonal variation
  Liu et al, 2003 (China) 24,252 17 hospitals 1992 - 1997 Winter and Spring
  Kocer et al, 2006 (Turkey) 269 Single center 2001 - 2004 Winter